We'll explain everything.

To help you improve your ecological impact, Greenly estimates the carbon footprint of each of your expenses by using a Participatory Carbon Standard. It estimates the impact of each expenditure by automatically identifying the product or the standard shopping basket based on the supplier label. Emissions are expressed in kg of CO2 and are calculated by applying a "monetary emission factor" to the amount of the expenditure, which varies by supplier or sector of activity.

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The carbon footprint of everyday expenses: calculation methodology & sources

General Principles of the Greenly Carbon Standard

1. How is my carbon footprint estimated?
Your carbon footprint is calculated by estimating, for each of your expenses, the associated greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. The supplier label obtained by Greenly with the copy of your transactions allows you to categorize the expense and thus determine the type of shopping cart, product or service associated with each transaction. A coefficient specific to each purchase category or supplier is applied to the amount of the expense. These coefficients, called "monetary emission factors", are used to convert euros into kg of CO2. Provided by the Greenly Participatory Carbon Standard, they correspond to the ratio of a product or service's emissions to its price. They can also be calculated as the ratio of a sector's emissions to its turnover.

To find out more, visit the page dedicated to the carbon balance.
2. How accurate is the estimate of my carbon footprint?
Estimating your carbon footprint is accurate for spending in sectors with homogeneous products in terms of carbon intensity. This is particularly the case for transport (petrol), housing (electricity, gas, water, etc.), everyday services (Internet, telephone subscription), and shopping baskets made up of products of the same nature.

Conversely, the estimate may be less accurate for sectors where banking transactions group together heterogeneous product categories, typically food, depending on whether meat or vegetables are consumed. Greenly is working to better take into account individual behaviour and refine these categories initially designed for budgetary purposes to enable you to estimate your footprint more and more accurately.
Uncertainty remains low on spending, which accounts for the majority of individual emissions: car transport (typically 15% of emissions), housing (20%), services, including subscriptions, health, leisure or children (20 to 30%) and a majority of everyday spending. As noted by ADEME, the French Energy Transition Agency, "monetary emission factors have intrinsic uncertainty to a greater or lesser extent depending on the category of purchases considered". However, it remains a commonly used method for analysing the carbon balances of many organisations, due to its high replicability and automaticity.
3. How do I interpret my carbon footprint results?
The average carbon footprint of a French person is 11.2 tons of CO2 equivalent per capita per year in 2018. You can refer to this so-called "normal" level to find out where you stand. To reach the objective of limiting global warming to 1.5° set by the Paris Agreement, global emissions would have to be reduced by 7.6% per year over the next decade. Everyone can do their part by changing their eating habits, notably by reducing their consumption of meat, by reducing the share of the most carbon-intensive transport (plane, car), by improving the energy efficiency of their homes, or by promoting the circular economy, including sustainable or second-hand purchases.
More specifically, everyone can:

-Change their diet: food accounts for a quarter of households' carbon footprint and diet has a strong influence on these emissions. According to ADEME, an average animal-dominated meal with beef emits 7.3 kg of CO2 equivalent, compared to only 500g for a vegetarian meal. Generally speaking, meat, and in particular red meat, has a much higher carbon footprint than plant-based foods.

-Limit your transport footprint by reducing air travel and favouring public transport, cycling or walking. A return trip from Paris to New York for one person emits about one tonne of CO2eq and one from Paris to Marseille emits 90 kg of CO2eq, compared with only 1.3 kg in the TGV. An average new car emits 118 g of CO2eq per km per passenger, while a TER would emit only 25 g and a TGV 1.7 g for the same distance.

-Decrease the energy consumption of your home: excluding construction, the carbon footprint of the home is mainly the result of heating and electricity. Insulating the walls and replacing the boiler with low-energy models can increase energy efficiency. Switching to a "green" electricity supplier also helps to reduce the footprint. In France, the average electricity mix emits 57.1 g of CO2eq per kWh consumed, due to the presence of fossil energy sources in addition to electricity from nuclear power. In comparison, wind power emits around 15 g of CO2eq per kWh and hydropower 6 g of CO2eq per kWh.

-Improve your consumption, buy reconditioned or second-hand products. This avoids the emissions resulting from the production and extraction of raw materials for new products.

To find out more, see the article dedicated to personal carbon footprinting.

4. Why is it important to reduce your carbon footprint?
Without a decrease in greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions from human activity, the average global surface temperature would increase by 2°C to 3.5°C by 2100, according to IPCC projections. This warming threatens to increase the number of extreme climate events, particularly droughts, rising oceans and their acidification, with many negative consequences for human health and development.

In 2016, the countries that signed the Paris Accord agreed to limit their emissions to keep warming below 2°C. They have committed to reducing the share of fossil fuels in production, and have set an emissions target of around 2 tonnes of CO2 per year per inhabitant. In 2018, the average carbon footprint of a French person was 11.2 t of CO2eq per year. In addition to structural efforts to change our production methods, the commitment of individuals to a decarbonation of their consumption and lifestyle is essential to achieve these reduction targets.

5. What is global warming?
Global warming is the phenomenon of an increase in the average temperature of the earth's surface due to the development of human activities that release so-called "greenhouse" gases into the atmosphere. It is important to distinguish between this global warming and the weather it may cause at a given time and place. A local cold spell does not call into question the reality of global warming: it is observed on longer time scales by measuring the average values of meteorological parameters over vast geographical areas.

Thus, according to the climatologists grouped together in the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC), continuing on the current trajectory, by 2100 the average temperature increase would be between 2°C and 3.5°C. While this may seem very small, the balance is in fact very fragile: during the ice age, with an average 4°C less, all of Northern Europe was covered in ice and the sea level had fallen by 100 m. The circulation of air masses and ocean currents is disturbed by global warming, which modifies the wind regime and the climate on the scale of entire regions.

Global warming therefore has many consequences on a global scale : increase in the number of extreme climatic events (more frequent and longer droughts, heat waves such as those of 2003 and 2019 in France could become more frequent), rising sea levels (which could lead to frequent submergence and flooding of low-lying coastal areas and thus forced migration of populations), ocean acidification (endangering many marine plants and animals), reduction in the quantity and quality of drinking water (due to changes in rainfall patterns), lower agricultural yields, with impacts on human health, the economy, etc.
6. What is a Greenhouse Gas?
The greenhouse effect is originally a natural phenomenon. The atmosphere, the gaseous envelope that surrounds our planet, is a real filter for the sun's rays: approximately 30% of the sun's radiation is reflected back to space by clouds, dust and reflective surfaces. The remaining 70% is absorbed by the Earth's surface and re-emitted as infrared radiation. Some of this radiation is then absorbed by the atmosphere, which heats up. At the origin of this absorption are certain gases, such as water vapour, carbon dioxide (CO2) or methane (CH4), naturally present in the atmosphere, known as "greenhouse gases (GHGs)", which keep the atmosphere at an average temperature of about 15°C. Without them, the thermometer would drop to -18°C, de facto prohibiting the development of life. However, human activities are the source of so-called "anthropogenic" GHG emissions. These additional emissions modify the composition of the atmosphere and accentuate the greenhouse effect. It is this increase in the greenhouse effect that is at the origin of global warming.

Various greenhouse gases are emitted by human activities:
-carbon dioxide (CO2), resulting from the combustion of fossil fuels (oil, coal, etc.).) or from deforestation and soil inversion;
-Methane, resulting from the use of nitrogenous fertilizers in agriculture, from the treatment, storage and spreading of animal waste, from enteric fermentation of ruminants;
-Nitrous oxide, emitted by certain fertilizers or by certain chemical processes;
-Fluorinated gases used as propellants, in the manufacture of foams or electronic components, in air conditioners...
7. 7. How are greenhouse gas emissions measured?
Greenhouse gas emissions are generally calculated rather than measured, as it is difficult when measuring in the atmosphere to differentiate between natural emissions and removals by forests or oceans and those resulting from human activities. Under the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change and the Kyoto Protocol, the 192 signatory countries are required to periodically update and publish an inventory of their anthropogenic greenhouse gas emissions. These inventories are carried out according to the IPCC guidelines and are based on statistical data: activity of a sector and average emission rate of this sector, for each of the elementary emitting activities selected for the inventory. In France it is the Citepa (Centre interprofessionnel technique d'études de la pollution atmosphérique) which carries out this inventory and publishes every year a detailed description, by emitting sector, of the methodologies used to estimate greenhouse gas and air pollutant emissions.
8. What is the carbon footprint?
The carbon footprint of a good or service refers to the total greenhouse gas emissions resulting from its production, distribution and consumption. Unlike an emissions inventory, the carbon footprint also takes into account the indirect emissions generated by the consumption of a product throughout the production chain. For example, the carbon footprint of a litre of petrol consumed includes emissions linked to the extraction, refining and transport of the barrel in addition to the direct emissions resulting from its combustion. Since different types of greenhouse gases can be emitted (CO2, CH4, N2O etc.) and have different impacts on the climate, emissions are converted into CO2 equivalent (carbon dioxide, hence the term carbon footprint), using the GWP (Global Warming Power) factors provided by the IPCC.

To find out more about the carbon footprint of companies, see the dedicated article
9. How are emissions calculated within a basket of expenditures?
For some shopping carts, the carbon footprint varies from one product to another, for example when shopping in a supermarket. In this case, we propose several methods to refine the calculation.

The user community helps us to refine the calculation by categorizing the purchase, and thus accessing its carbon footprint independently of the price, based on carbon footprint calculations from validated sources, for example those of ADEME on capital goods.

To go further, we are working on a method to analyze your invoices either by photographing and scanning the purchase, or by accessing your email data for even more automated processing. The access to these data will be done in the strictest respect of the rules regarding the protection of your privacy. In this case, the analysis algorithms can automatically retrieve your invoices and make a reconciliation between the bank expenditure and the item, in order to refine the calculation.

To learn more about the carbon impact of digital industries, see the dedicated article
10. What's a kilo of C02?
CO2 is a gas which, like all other gases, has a mass that can be expressed in kg, using the molar mass of CO2 (44 g/mol). One kg of CO2, under normal conditions of temperature and pressure, fills a volume of approximately 510 litres.
11. What does one tonne of CO2 correspond to?
One ton of CO2 is equivalent to :

- A volume of 534 m3 at 15ºC
- A square swimming pool of 8.12 metres
- A volume larger than a double-decker bus
- The average monthly emissions of a French person
- The amount of carbon stored by 5 mature trees.
12. How is each monetary issue factor estimated?
In practice, monetary emission factors are estimated specifically by nature of expenditure. To identify the corresponding group of products or services, each banking transaction is classified among sixty-nine categories, depending on the supplier. These categories refer to an activity (transport, housing, consumption, food, leisure and services, etc.) or a sub-area of activity, to which specific monetary ratios are assigned. These emission factors are then calculated according to three methods:

1/ By product, when it is possible to deduct the quantity of a product from its quantity, for example in transport with petrol, or for housing with electricity;

For example, the emission factors for electricity in France are 0.32 kg of CO2eq per euro spent. This figure is obtained by estimating the average emissions of a conventional electricity contract in France, which are 0.0571 kg CO2eq/kWh, with an uncertainty of 5%, and the regulated tariff in 2019 was 0.1765€ including tax per kWh of electricity in 2019.

2/ Per service, by applying a coefficient per sector of activity or per company-specific ratio to the amount of the expenditure. This method is particularly well suited to services, particularly IT and financial services, or cultural offerings. This ratio is calculated by dividing the carbon footprint of the company or sector (scope 1,2,3), by its turnover;

For example, the emission factors for video streaming are estimated at 1.44 kg of CO2eq per euro spent. Indeed, video on demand (VOD) would have emitted 102 Mt of CO2eq for a total turnover of 71 billion in 2018.

3/ Per average basket, when a bank transaction refers to grouped purchases of products, for example in food or clothing. According to a method used by ADEME, the estimate is obtained from a representative mix of typical products, whose carbon footprint and average prices are known. For this category, Greenly and BNPP aim to continuously refine the analyses, and eventually allow users to specify which item it is, in order to further refine the estimates.

Consult the page dedicated to the Corporate Carbon Footprint here
13. What are the possible sources of imprecision in monetary emission factors?
As ADEME notes, "monetary emission factors have an intrinsic degree of uncertainty that varies according to the category of purchases considered". However, it remains the most commonly used method for analysing the carbon balances of many organisations, due to its high "replicability" and the homogeneity of analysis from one person to another. It facilitates the monitoring of its evolution and makes it easier to educate on the most impacting positions. It should be noted that despite these imprecision factors, this method offers individuals the advantage of an automatic calculation, and an unequalled precision compared to all other methods, particularly static generic questionnaires.

Note that uncertainty increases for shopping baskets with very heterogeneous products, typically e-commerce purchases. Indeed, for some merchants, a bank transaction may refer to manufactured objects whose impact is very varied (textiles, electronics).

Conversely, uncertainty decreases sharply in sectors with homogeneous products. This concerns in particular transport (petrol), housing (electricity, gas, water, etc.), everyday services (Internet, telephone subscription), and shopping baskets made up of products of the same nature.

It emerges that uncertainty remains low on expenditure, which accounts for the majority of individual emissions: transport (typically 25% of emissions), housing (20%), services, including subscriptions, health, leisure or children (20 to 30%) and a majority of everyday expenditure.

In order to reduce these imprecision factors and to make the best use of changes in individual habits, Greenly is working with its users to refine these analyses:

- The user community is invited to participate in the improvement of the Greenly Participative Carbon Standard, by labelling their purchases as best as possible, so that the most appropriate monetary emission factors can be applied.

- In the future, finer categories will be added to the application to segment purchases within more homogeneous product groups, going as far as possible to the analysis of the brands themselves.

- It will also become possible to analyse the carbon footprint of an expenditure independently of the price, by identifying the underlying products or services. Their carbon footprint can then be estimated on the basis of a life cycle assessment (LCA). This will require the ability to specify the product behind each expenditure, for example by automatically scanning an invoice.
14. What is Greenly doing to reduce the imprecision of monetary emissions factors?
Pour améliorer la précision des estimations et réduire les facteurs d'incertitudes évoqués dans la méthodologie, Greenly travaille en permanence sur plusieurs axes d'amélioration  :

Affiner les catégories

Greenly travaille à affiner en continu les catégories pour distinguer toujours plus finement des produits aux empreintes carbones très hétérogènes. En effet pour certaines catégories la méthode de calcul repose sur une moyenne pondérée par la consommation des ménages, qui induit une erreur qui pourrait être évitée en séparant les différents produits impliqués dans la moyenne.

Par exemple, Greenly introduit une distinction dans la catégorie bancaire type "Billet d'avion, billet de train". Si les deux dépenses étaient groupées, le facteur d'émissions monétaire calculé en moyenne serait de 1,180 kgCO2eq / €. Le facteur d'émissions de la catégorie "train" seul est de 0,0331 kgCO2eq / €, celui de la catégorie "avion" seul de 1,695 kgCO2eq / €.

L'incertitude de l'empreinte carbone globale est  grandement améliorée en affinant les catégories bancaires types trop générales : "Billet de train et billet d'avion", "voyages et vacances", "cadeaux", "musique, livres et films", "électricité et gaz" etc. )

Evaluer les marques

Greenly travaille sur une manière plus poussée d’affiner les catégories, en différenciant les marques dans un même secteur. Pour des catégories comme l’habillement par exemple, les estimations peuvent être réalisées à partir de prix moyens, or il y a en réalité une variance importante des prix des articles d’habillement, alors que l’empreinte carbone des articles est relativement homogène. Entre des produits d’entrée de gamme et de luxe on peut ainsi avoir un rapport des prix moyens de plus de 10 (prix moyens chez Zara, Uniqlo, H&M etc. de l’ordre de 20€, plutôt de l’ordre de la centaine d’euros chez Chanel) qui se traduit par un rapport équivalent des facteurs d’émissions monétaires. Différencier les marques par gamme de prix permet donc de grandement gagner en précision sur les estimations.

A l’inverse dans le secteur des services les prix étant plus homogènes il est intéressant d’affiner l’évaluation des émissions carbones par marque, ce qui permettrait par exemple de différencier des opérateurs de télécommunication, des assureurs etc.

Réduire l’incertitude prix

Une part importante de l’incertitude sur les estimations peut venir  d’incertitudes sur les prix. Certains biens de consommation courante comme l’essence par exemple sont sujets à des variations relativement rapides de prix. Or une augmentation de quelques points de pourcentages du prix de l’essence par exemple se traduit par une diminution équivalente en pourcentage du facteur d’émissions monétaire, variation qui se révèle pertinente si l’on connaît les émissions de CO2eq par volume / poids avec une bonne précision (ce qui est le cas pour l’essence).

Pour ce type de biens de consommation courante qui représentent une part non négligeable de la consommation des ménages, Greenly intègre de façon toujours plus dynamiques les variations rapides des prix aux estimations (en utilisant des moyennes hebdomadaires ou mensuelles plutôt que annuelles par exemple).

Evaluer l’impact par produits

Enfin il est utile et intéressant de différencier des produits substituables ayant un impact environnemental très différent. L’exemple le plus évident vient probablement de la restauration : un repas à dominante animale avec du boeuf émet de l’ordre de 7 kg de CO2eq, alors qu’un repas végétarien émet en moyenne 500 g de CO2eq. Différencier ce type de produit permet donc d’améliorer la qualité des estimations mais participe également à la démarche de sensibilisation des utilisateurs. C'est pourquoi Greenly permet à ses utilisateurs d'indiquer les produits derrière certaines transactions.
15. How do I understand my carbon impact results?
Carbon impact results are an estimate of the greenhouse gas emissions emitted by the production, transportation, distribution and consumption of the goods or services purchased. They are expressed in kg of CO2 equivalent. The quantity of greenhouse gases emitted depends on both the type and amount of purchases.

Consult the article dedicated to your personal carbon footprint
16. What is the average French person's carbon footprint?
According to the General Commission for Sustainable Development (CGDD), the average carbon footprint of a French person was 11.2 tons of CO2 equivalent per inhabitant per year in 2019.

Findout more about how to measure your personal carbon impact
17. What is the Paris Climate Accord?
The Paris Accord follows the negotiations held at the 2015 Paris Conference on Climate Change (COP21), the first universal agreement on climate and global warming.

According to the UNFCCC (United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change) : "The central objective of the Paris Accord is to strengthen the global response to the threat of climate change by keeping the increase in global temperature well below 2 degrees Celsius compared to pre-industrial levels and to continue efforts to further limit the temperature increase to 1.5 degrees Celsius. In addition, the agreement aims to increase the capacity of countries to cope with the impacts of climate change and to make financial flows compatible with a low level of GHG emissions and a climate resilient path".
18. What are the carbon emission reduction targets set by the Paris Accord?
The signatory countries of the Paris Agreement (COP21) have agreed:
- to keep the increase in global temperature well below 2°C above pre-industrial levels;
- to continue efforts to limit the rise in temperature to 1.5°C;
- to aim for a peak in global emissions as soon as possible, recognising that this will be slower in developing countries;
- to then make early reductions, based on the best available science, so as to achieve a balance between emissions and removals in the second half of the century.

The Agreement also establishes a binding commitment by signatories to report and maintain national climate action plans ("nationally determined contribution" or NDC) and to put in place domestic measures to achieve this. The EU's nationally determined contribution (NDC) under the Paris agreement is to reduce greenhouse gas emissions by at least 40% by 2030 compared to 1990, an objective which is also part of the climate and energy policy framework adopted by the European Council in October 2014.
19. Are my efforts alone enough to reduce our collective carbon footprint?
The impact of individual action should not be neglected, provided that it is not confined to symbolic or marginal gestures. Among the actions with the greatest impact is the change from a meat diet to a vegetarian diet, which would represent a reduction of about 10% of an individual's total carbon footprint. The commitment of individuals to decarbonate their consumption and lifestyle is essential to achieve emission reduction targets and carbon neutrality.

To learn more about personal carbon footprinting, see the article
20. How is the carbon footprint of a sector or company calculated?
To calculate the monetary emissions factor for a company or sector, the carbon footprint of companies in the sector is related to their turnover. This ratio of total footprint to turnover gives an estimate of the average carbon footprint of one euro earned by companies in the sector.

To recover the carbon footprint of companies, the analysis relies on Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR) reports which typically list the three types of emissions:

-Scope 1: These are direct emissions expressed in tonnes of carbon, this balance sheet groups together greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions directly related to the manufacture of the company's product. For example, if the manufacture of the product required the use of oil, the combustion of fuel, or if the production of the product generated CO2 or methane emissions, all these emissions are accounted for in Scope 1.

-Scope 2: These are indirect emissions related to energy consumption. It includes greenhouse gas emissions related to the energy consumption required to manufacture the product. For example, to manufacture a product, electricity is generally required to power the factories where the product is designed. This electricity consumption in itself does not produce greenhouse gases. However, the production of electricity does emit greenhouse gases. All these emissions related to secondary energy consumption are accounted for in Scope 2.

- Scope 3: This covers indirect emissions related to the product life cycle (supply, transport, use, end of life, etc.), but which are not directly related to the manufacture of the product. For example, to manufacture a product, raw materials are needed. The extraction of these raw materials, their processing and their transport to the production plant emit greenhouse gases. Similarly, the end of a product's life or its recycling also emit greenhouse gases.

For example, to calculate the carbon footprint of a computer license, we calculate the carbon footprint per euro of a basket of license publishers (e.g. Microsoft, Adobe, etc.).

To find out more about automated carbon footprinting with Greenly software
21. What sources does Greenly rely on?
Greenly's calculation algorithms are based on public data, in particular from:
- The French Environment and Energy Management Agency (ADEME)
- The World Bank
- GHG balance sheets and public CSR reports from companies that account for their carbon footprint.
-Dedicated scientific publications on product life cycle analysis (LCA)
-The INSEE
-Eurostat
-The Carbon Trust
-And Greenly's analyses in connection with its community of committed users.

All sources are available in the application for each expenditure.

More about the Terra Base Carbone Greenly
22. How to participate in the improvement of the update of the analyses?
When the categorisation or the analysis of a product seems to you to be wrong, you can send us the error:
- By email by writing to beta@greenly.earth
- Or by clicking directly in the application on the bubble that allows you to launch an email.
- By recategorizing the expense directly in the mobile application.

Help us refine Greenly's calculations by recategorizing your expenses, and offering analysis by category and brand. We will integrate the contributions validated by our Scientific Council, once the calculations and sources have been verified. Greenly is constantly improving thanks to its community.
22. Who are the members of the Greenly Scientific Council and what is their mission?
La constitution d’un Conseil Scientifique, s’est imposée d’elle-même comme une évidence à mesure que la société a commencé à déployer ses technologies auprès du grand public. Il s’agit de veiller à l’intégrité scientifique des travaux de Greenly et lui permettre de convaincre le plus grand nombre du bien-fondé de son outil de suivi. Fort de ce constat, la société a su réunir autour d’elle une équipe d’experts, spécialisés dans l’analyse de l’empreinte carbone, les politiques environnementales et le déploiement de nouvelles technologies.

Le Conseil scientifique compte parmi ses membres des experts de l’empreinte carbone, des économistes de l’environnement et des personnalités de la société civile susceptibles chacune d’apporter leur expertise et leur hauteur de vue pour guider Greenly dans ses développements. Les membres suivants ont participé aux revues des méthodes et calculs de Greenly :

- Michel Bauer, économiste et sociologue, anciennement chercheur au CNRS et professeur à HEC, qui a accepté de présider le Conseil.

- Antoine Dechezleprêtre, économiste, professeur à la London School of Economics qui a travaillé avec Nicholas Stern, et  spécialiste des questions climatiques à l’OCDE.

- Christian Couturier, ex-partner d’Astorg Capital, investisseur à impact et entrepreneur focalisé sur la réduction des émissions carbone.

- Lucas Chancel, économiste, spécialiste des inégalités et de l'environnement. Ses travaux portent sur la mesure des inégalités économiques, leur interaction avec le développement durable et la mise en oeuvre de politiques publiques sociales et environnementales.

- Caroline Alazard, fondatrice de la société GreenNext avec Nicolas Houdant, dans les années 2000, a évoqué son intérêt au titre de ses travaux antérieurs. Sa société avait procédé à la mesure de l’empreinte carbone de cinq cent mille produits de grande consommation.

- Yann Leroy, professeur à CentraleSupélec et y dirige une filière transversale autour de la conception innovante de produits complexes, et s’intéresse en particulier au moyen de mieux proposer aux usagers des dépenses alternatives plus écoresponsables.

- Nicolas Houdant, DG d’Energie Demain, société d’accompagnement des collectivités territoriales dans leur stratégie bas carbone.

- Luc Julia, expert mondial en intelligence artificielle, co-inventeur de SIRI et vice-président de l’innovation chez Samsung.

Ensemble, les membres ont établi la liste des finalités duConseil, en particulier :

-Mettre en place une démarche de revue transparente des méthodes de calculs de Greenly ;

-Débattre de la façon dont la société évalue l’empreinte carbone et voir comment rendre la base carbone plus participative ;

-Passer en revue la gouvernance de la donnée, c’est-à-dire le processus quiencadre les évolutions de la base carbone, avec une vigilance particulière surla traçabilité des modifications ainsi que l’archivage des sources ;

-Veiller à la mise en place d’une revue de la base carbone par un tiers externe de confiance, notamment pour assurer son contrôle qualité ou détailler non seulement les calculs, mais aussi une évaluation de la précision par poste ;

-Assurer l’homogénéité des traitements, pour éviter de privilégier une marque ou une entreprise sur une autre ;

-Guider la société dans ses développements futurs, notamment pour participer à l’amélioration continue de ses méthodes d’analyse ;

-Encadrer le travail collaboratif avec les utilisateurs, pour affiner la compréhension des paniers moyens et le calcul des ratios monétaires, par exemple en apprenant du contenu de leur panier moyen pour affiner les coefficients propres à chaque usager ;

-Veiller à garantir une relation équilibrée avec les partenaires externes de Greenly pour préserver l’intégrité de ses méthodes, indépendamment des relations économiques que pourra nouer la société.

Consulter la page dédiée au Conseil Scientifique Greenly ici

Transport

1. What is the carbon footprint of my transportation, and how can I reduce it?
Here are the emissions per passenger and per km of some modes of transport:

- A short-haul plane: 258 g of CO2eq.
- A medium car: 121 g of CO2eq.
- A TER: 25 g of CO2eq.
- A TGV: 1.7 g of CO2eq.
- On foot: 0 g of CO2eq.

Favouring public transport over the car, and train over plane, significantly reduces the carbon footprint of transport.

2. What is the monetary emission factor of an airplane flight?
A medium-haul flight emits 0.187 kgCO2eq/passenger.km, a short-haul 0.258 kgCO2eq/passenger.km, a long-haul 0.152 kgCO2eq/passenger.km, for an average cost of €0.11 / km of the air ticket. In 2017 in the EU, intra-EU flights (medium-haul) accounted for 47% of flights, domestic flights (short-haul) 17% and international flights (long-haul) 36%.

This gives an average monetary emission factor of 1,695 kg CO2 eq / € for an air ticket. Itshould be noted that this estimate does not take into account the depreciation of the vehicle's manufacture.

Sources:
Carbon Base ADEME
INSEE
Google Flight
My Climate Flight Emission Calculator
Greenly Participative Carbon Reference System
3. What is the monetary issue factor of a train ticket? 
The train emits 0.00529 kg CO2eq / passenger / km, for an average train ticket price of 16 cents per km travelled, resulting in an emission factor of 0.0331 kg CO2eq / € incl. VAT.

Sources:
SNCF 2017
RTE 2017
Carbon base consulted on 22/06/2019
Greenly Participative Carbon Baseline

4. What is the monetary emission factor of the fuel? 
On average, the price of a litre of petrol in 2019 is €1.5198 including tax, that of a litre of diesel is €1.4405 including tax. Greenhouse gas consumption is 2.8 kg CO2eq / L for unleaded premium 95 / 95-E10 / 98 and 3.16 kg CO2eq / L for road diesel.

Given that in 2019 the private car fleet had 57.9% petrol type registrations and 34.1% diesel type registrations, the average emission factor for the private car fleet is 1.97 kg CO2eq / € incl. VAT.

Sources:
https://carbu.com/france/prixmoyens
Carbon database consulted on 22/06/2019 http://www.bilans-ges.ademe.fr
Greenly Carbon Baseline

5. What is the monetary issue factor of carpooling?  
On average, a car journey by car-sharing in France would generate 1.70 kg of CO2 per euro spent, mainly on petrol.

On average, car-sharing would correspond to a saving of 12% compared to the car, according to a study by the ADEME (French Environment and Energy Management Agency). In fact, many of the passengers who use Blabacar or Karos type applications would otherwise have taken the train, thus reducing the positive impact of car sharing alone.

Sources:
Collab ADEME study : http://www.etudeconsocollab2016.ademe.fr/
https://carbu.com/france/prixmoyens
Carbon base consulted on 22/06/2019 http://www.bilans-ges.ademe.fr/)

6. What is the monetary emission factor of a taxi or VTC?  
The price per km of a VTC is 1,2€ for 127g of C02 produced on this same distance.

Sources:
Uber, Kapten, Marcel
ADEME (https://www.ademe.fr/sites/default/files/assets/documents/rapport_technique_prospective_consommation_novembre_2015.pdf)
Greenly Participative Carbon Reference Framework


7. What is the carbon footprint of an electrically assisted bicycle?
On average, renting an electrically assisted bicycle (EAB) would generate 60g of CO2 per euro spent.

EABs emit 22g CO2e per km, compared to an average of 127g / km for a new car in 2019. Approximately 117 km are driven per month. The typical subscription is charged at €40 per month, or 2.95 km per euro spent, or an average emission of 60g per euro spent.

The saving compared to a car is 107g per km, or 320g per euro spent for an average distance of 2.95km .

Over a lifetime of around 5 to 10 years, the positive impact of using an EAV can be between 1 and 2 tonnes of CO2 (AVEM - Association for the Promotion and Information of Electric and Hybrid Vehicles - proposes an average lifetime of 8 years). In our calculations, we will use a low hypothesis of 5 years, which corresponds to a gain of a little more than one tonne of CO2. Taking into account the emission factors generated by the production and assembly cycle of the EAB, its maintenance, the replacement of mechanical and electrical parts during the life of the bicycle, and the GHG emissions induced by the cyclist's energy expenditure, the balance remains largely positive and reaches 880 kg over 5 years. These estimates are based on recent work by AVEM, which has estimated:- The carbon balance of EAB including production, maintenance and consumption of EAB at 5 g CO2 / km-The calories expended by the cyclist during the use of EAB correspond to 16 g CO2 / kmAs a reminder, a beneficiary travels an average of 1,400 km in EAB each year (of which 200 were previously done by conventional bicycle, i.e. 1,200 additional km by bicycle), in particular by saving 660 km on the car. Over 5 years, nearly 6,000 additional km are cycled for every 3,300 km in car avoided.

Sources:
ADEME: Evaluation study on bicycle services, Survey on aid for the purchase of electrically assisted bicycles AVEM
Greenly participatory carbon reference system


8. What is the carbon footprint of an electric scooter?
On average, renting an electric scooter would generate 30 g of CO2 per euro spent.

An electric scooter would emit about 30 g of CO2 per km, compared to 127 g for a car produced in 2019, mainly due to the production of the electric battery. Rental is charged by the minute, with no minimum time imposed, with a rate of 0.28 euros per minute including tax and an average distance travelled of 15 km/h. This means that a km is charged at an average of 1.12 euros including tax.

For 1 € spent on an electric scooter rental, this means that about 90g is avoided compared to a petrol-powered VTC.

Sources:
ADEME
https://youmatter.world/en/sustainable-mobility-electric-scooters-28897/
Cityscoot for pricing
Base Carbone participative Greenly

9. What is the carbon footprint of an electric scooter?
On average, a trip with an electric scooter would generate 0.15 kg of CO2 eq. per euro spent.

On average, an electric scooter would emit 202 g of CO2 per km per passenger over its life cycle, which is almost as much as a petrol-powered passenger car. It costs one euro to "take care of", then 15 cents per minute, i.e. 3.25 euros for a 15-minute run, allowing an average distance of 2.4 km to be covered.

Sources:
Greenly Participative Carbon Reference System
https://youmatter.world/en/sustainable-mobility-electric-scooters-28897/
10. What is the carbon footprint of the Post Office?
On average, a postal item would generate 0.13 kg of CO2 per euro spent.

According to ADEME, the emission factors to be used to estimate the emissions associated with the purchase of mail goods and services are 130 kgCO2e / k€ HT .

By way of illustration, for mail in France, using the French Post Office as a benchmark, a 20g letter sent between Paris and Marseille emits 21.6 g of CO2 at a cost of 1.16€, i.e. an estimate of 0.019 kg of CO2e per euro. For international mail, using Fedex as a benchmark, the group's total emissions (Scope 1, 2 & 3) are 294.93 tons CO2e/$M returned in 2017, or a footprint of 0.29 kg of CO2e per euro with the monetary conversation...

Sources:
La Poste (http://objectifzeroco2.laposte.fr/)
FEDEX
Greenly Analysis

11. What is the carbon footprint of a ferry ticket?
On average, the payment of a ferry boat ticket is equivalent to 7.34 kg of CO2e per euro spent, by far one of the most polluting expenses.

The ferry is the most polluting mode of transport with more than 2000kg of CO2e per passenger, for a crossing of 400 km, i.e. 5kg of CO2e per km. The Euro carbon estimate is obtained by taking a representative ferry trip between Le Havre and Portsmouth with an average price of 122€ for a distance of 179.4km.

Sources:
ADEME
Greenly Participative Carbon Reference System

Housing

1. What is the carbon footprint of my home?
Excluding the depreciation of the building, the carbon footprint of the dwelling results mainly from the heating and electricity consumed. In total, housing accounts for nearly 25% of the 11.2 t emitted on average per person per year in France.

In France, the average electricity mix emits 57.1 g of CO2eq per kWh consumed, compared with wind power emitting around 15 g of CO2eq per kWh and hydropower 6 g
of CO2eq per kWh.
2. What is the monetary emission factor of electricity in France?
In France, the average electricity mix emits 57.1 g of CO2eq per kWh consumed, compared to wind power which emits around 15 g of CO2eq per kWh and hydropower which emits 6 g of CO2eq per kWh. Switching to a green electricity supplier therefore helps to reduce the carbon footprint of your home.

Sources:
Average mix - http://www.bilans-ges.ademe.fr/
Eurostat
ADEME Carbon Base
Greenly Participative Carbon Reference System
3. What is the carbon footprint of gas in France? 
On average, the consumption of so-called natural gas in France generates 2.56 kg of CO2 per euro spent.

On average, the emissions of a gas contract in France are 0.227 kgCO2eq/kWh Electricity - 2018 and the average tariff is 0.0886 € including tax per kilowatt-hour of gas in 2019

Sources:
Natural gas - 2015 - average mix - consumption consulted on 05/09/2014
Carbon Base
http://www.bilans-ges.ademe.fr/
4. Do we share your personal data?
On average, the consumption of natural gas in France generates 2.56 kg of CO2 per euro spent.

On average, the emissions of a gas contract in France are 0.227 kgCO2eq/kWh Electricity - 2018 and the average tariff is 0.0886 € TTC per kilowatt-hour of gas in 2019

Sources:
Natural gas - 2015 - average mix - consumption consulted on 05/09/2014
Carbon Base
http://www.bilans-ges.ademe.fr/
5. What is the carbon footprint of the so-called "green" gas?
On average, the consumption of natural gas in France generates 0.64 kg of CO2 per euro spent.

On average, the emissions of a gas contract in France are 0.057 kgCO2eq/kWh Electricity - 2018 and the average tariff is 0.0886 € TTC per kilowatt-hour of gas in 2019

Sources:
Natural gas - 2015 - average mix - consumption consulted on 05/09/2014
Carbon Base
http://www.bilans-ges.ademe.fr/
6. What is the carbon footprint of tap water? 
On average, water consumption in France generates 0.03 kg of CO2 per euro spent.

GHG emissions from the production of drinking water at Eaux de Paris amount to 20,094 tons of CO2.
The price of drinking water is 3.4164€/m3 including tax in 2015, with an average of 534,000m3 d per day.

Sources:
http://www.eaudeparis.fr/lentreprise-publique/chiffres-cles-deau-de-paris
Greenly Participative Carbon Reference System

Consumption and everyday life

1. What is the carbon footprint of my textile purchases? 
On average, purchases of clothing generate 0.3 kg of CO2 per euro spent.

Based on a cotton shirt (11.2kgCO2/u), and cotton jeans (23.2kgCO2/u) at 50€/unit.

Sources:
Base Carbone ADEME
(http://www.bilans-ges.ademe.fr)
INSEE - customized price index simulator
Greenly Participative Carbon Standard
2. 2. What is the carbon footprint of a new cotton shirt?
On average, shirt purchases generate 0.43 kg of CO2 per euro spent.

Based on a cotton shirt (13kgCO2/u) produced from "cradle-to-grave" for an average price of 30€ (incl. VAT) at H&M, Zara etc...

Sources:
Base Carbone
http://www.bilans-ges.ademe.fr/
INSEE - customized price index simulator
Greenly Participative Carbon Standard
3. What is the carbon footprint of a pair of jeans? 
On average, the purchase of jeans generates 0.31 kg CO2-eq. per euro spent.

This analysis is based on emissions of 25 kg CO2-eq. per product from "cradle-to-grave" for a price of 80€ including VAT at H&M, Zara, Gap

Sources:
Carbon Base
http://www.bilans-ges.ademe.fr/
INSEE - customised price index simulator
4. What is the carbon footprint of IT? 
On average, purchases of IT equipment generate 3,328 kg of CO2 per euro spent.

Based on 24-inch LCD screen (431 kgCOe/device) at €200, laptop (1900 kgCO2/device) at €350, smartphone (480 kgCOe/device) at €200. Base Carbone - 24-inch LCD screen; Laptop>15-inch, consulted on 05/09/2014

To find out more about the carbon footprint of digital technology, see the article

Read the article on the carbon impact of our smartphones

Sources:
Base Carbone


INSEE - customised price index simulatorhttp://www.bilans-ges.ademe.fr/ Référentiel Carbone Participatif Greenly
5. What is the carbon footprint of the appliance?  
On average, purchases of household appliances consume 1 kg of CO2 per euro spent.

The following assumption is made: 1€=1kgCO2 (415 kgCO2e/unit at 400€/u)

Sources:
ADEME Carbon Base
http://www.bilans-ges.ademe.fr/
INSEE - customised price index simulator
Référentiel Carbone Participatif Greenly
6. What is the carbon footprint of a book? 
The emission factor associated with the publishing of books, newspapers and magazines is estimated at 0.233 kgCO2eq / € incl. VAT.

This result is obtained by calculating the ratio of the sector's total emissions to the sector's turnover. The same emissions associated with the consumption of goods and services such as films, sound recording, television, radio, etc. are estimated at 0.258 kgCO2eq / € including tax.

Knowing that in 2019 the purchase of books, press articles and stationery accounted for 15% of household cultural and leisure expenditure, and cultural services (cinema, shows, audiovisual subscriptions, etc.) 12%, the monetary emissions factor of this category is estimated at 0.244 kg CO2eq / € including tax.

Sources:
Base Carbone ADEME
Référentiel Carbone Participatif Greenly

Food

1. What is the carbon footprint of my food and how can I reduce it?
Food-related greenhouse gas emissions account for a quarter of household emissions, and diet has a strong influence on these emissions.according to ADEME, an average animal-dominated meal with beef emits 7.3 kg of CO2 equivalent, compared with only 500g for a vegetarian meal.

Generally speaking, meat, and in particular red meat, has a much larger carbon footprint than plant-based foods. The majority of these emissions come from the enteric fermentation of animals, the management of animal waste, feed and energy for the operation of livestock buildings.

Depending on the type and origin of the feed, a significant part of the carbon footprint can also come from deforestation (which leads to a loss of carbon sinks).
2. What is the monetary emission factor of food in France?
The monetary emission factor of food in France is estimated at 0.584 kg of CO2 eq. per euro spent, by cross-checking a macroeconomic and microeconomic analysis of the French food footprint.

At the macroeconomic level, the monetary emission factor of food in France is estimated at 0.584 kg of CO2 eq. per euro spent. Indeed, according to INSEE, households spend 187 billion euros on their "food" budget, i.e. 2,794 euros on average per inhabitant over the year (67 million inhabitants in France on 1 January 2020 according to INSEE) The average food footprint of a French person is estimated at 1.632t of CO2eq per year.

At the microeconomic level, on the basis of 800 meals per year at the person's expense (approximately 2 meals per day) for an average cost of 3.49€ per meal, we find a comparable emission factor, in fact the emissions associated with an average meal are estimated at 2.04 kg CO2eq, i.e. a monetary emission factor of 0.584 kg CO2eq/€.

There are still some imprecision factors, of course. At the macroeconomic level, the food budget is an average value calculated on the basis of the total expenditure of French households on food, so the actual budget varies greatly according to income. On the other hand, the estimate of the average food footprint is based on a "classic" diet, and the type of food consumed (red meat vs. vegetarian, imported products vs. local products) has a strong influence on the carbon footprint of the typical plate, so there is also at the microeconomic level a significant uncertainty on the emissions associated with an average meal. In order to reduce these imprecision factors, a finer categorisation of expenditure is being developed.

Sources:
Référentiel Carbone Participatif Greenly
INSEE
Carbonbase ADEME
WWF study
Eco2 initiative
INCA3
Agribalyse

2. 2. What is the carbon footprint of beef?
On average, beef in France represents 1.31 kg of CO2 per euro spent. This is the coefficient typically assigned to butcher shops.

On average, the emissions of a beef steak are 28.6 kgCO2e/kg. The average price of beef in France is 21.83€/kg

Sources:
Base Carbone consulted on 22/06/19
http://www.bilans-ges.ademe.fr/
https://rnm.franceagrimer.fr/prix?M2501:MARCHE

Services

1. What is the carbon footprint of streaming and VOD? 
On average, streaming expenses would represent 1.44 kg of CO2 per euro spent.

According to a report by the Shift Project, video on demand (VOD) would have emitted 102MtCO2 in 2018, for a total turnover of 71 Bn in 2018, i.e. an average of 1.44 kg of CO2 emitted per euro spent. Today, digital technology is estimated to emit 4% of the world's greenhouse gases, and its energy consumption is expected to grow by 9% per year.

Read the article on the carbon footprint of digitaltechnology

Sources:
SHIFT Project
Carbon Base ADEME ( )
http://www.bilans-ges.ademe.fr/ Greenly Participative Carbon Base
2. What is the carbon footprint of music streaming? 
On average, streaming expenses would represent 0.04 kg of CO2 per euro spent.

The turnover of music streaming was 19 billion in 2018 for 255 million premium users worldwide. In the United States, there would be 55 million paying streaming customers in 2018, for an annual turnover of 7.4 billion dollars or approximately 6.5 billion euros. Associated music streaming emissions are estimated at 275 million kilos of GHG in the United States.

Sources:
Base Carbone Participative Greenly
Music Consumption has unintended economic & environmental costs, University of Glasgow 2019
3. What is the carbon footprint of an insurance policy?
On average, an insurance contract would represent 0.0018 kg of CO2 per euro spent.

Taking a company representative of the sector, Axa generated 1.5t per FTE in 2018 with 125934 employees, i.e. a footprint of 188901t C02 compared to a turnover of 24.5 billion euros. It is assumed that the carbon footprint per euro of turnover is the same as the carbon footprint per euro of expenditure.

Sources:

Axa Group CSR Report
Greenly Participative Carbon Footprint Benchmark
4. What is the carbon footprint of sports betting and gambling? 
On average, one euro spent on sports betting would represent 0.0035 kg of CO2 per euro spent.

Taking La Française des Jeux as a representative company in the sector, we obtain the following figures for this group in 2018: a total carbon footprint of 53,000 t of CO2 for a turnover of €15.1 billion

Sources
:
Française des Jeux, CSR report
Greenly Participative Carbon Reference System

Participatory contribution

1. How can I contribute to the Greenly participative carbon benchmark? 
Greenly relies on its community to enrich its participatory carbon base and enable everyone to measure the impact of their purchases. Everyone can help to refine Greenly's calculations by re-categorising their spending and offering analyses by category and brand. These contributions are integrated after validation by our scientific committee, once the calculations and sources have been verified. Greenly is constantly improving thanks to its community. Please contact us on contact@greenly.earth